Tuesday, February 13, 2018

Data Storage Industry Braces for AI and Machine Learning

You hear a lot these days about artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning. Magazine article and TV news spots drool over the transformational potential of these technologies. But watch out. AI and machine learning have an almost insatiable appetite for data storage. They will consume vast quantities of capacity while demanding insane levels of throughput.

With storage revenues flagging according to the most recent report from International Data Corp. (IDC), that’s good news for enterprise storage vendors seeking to boost sales. But industry capabilities are likely to be stretched to the limit as analytics engines battle with data storage repositories to be fed information at the rate they desire.

The adoption of machine learning can quickly tax underlying data access and management infrastructure,” said Laura Shepard, Senior Director, Product Marketing, DataDirect Networks. “Prototypes and generation one machine learning infrastructure are typically built on existing enterprise storage, or the team building it decides to roll their own with white box and a mix of open source, home grown and commercial tools and applications.”

As a result, it’s common for even the most successful machine learning programs to run into problems with scale as in general, when it comes to AI, the more data that can be incorporated the better the results will be. This pushes machine learning projects to grow and grow.

When this happens, we see the generation-one infrastructure start to stress. Scaling failures start to show up such as the inability to deliver data access at the required speed, inability to scale the amount transformation on the data to improve findings, and inability to scale data storage in a footprint that’s easy or cost-effective to manage. Any one of these failures can derail advances of the overall program because if you can’t grow your inputs or increase the depth of your deep learning network you can’t scale your outputs, said Shepard.

Opportunity Knocks

But one man’s challenge is another’s opportunity. As adoption of AI and machine learning grows, it is and will attract a growing legion of startups eager to solve the many issues involved.

“Managing data center infrastructure has been a process of being proactive, and staying ahead of the requirements of the business,” said Frank Berry, Senior Analyst, IT Brand Pulse. “The promise of machine learning is improved storage performance, higher availability service levels and greater efficiency (less admins per storage unit) through automation.

Kevin Liebl, vice president of marketing, Zadara Storage, expanded upon that theme. He believes that AI will make data storage far more self-managing – think self-driving data centers, just like self-driving cars.

“Automation will dramatically increase the number of servers an administrator can manage – from an estimated 500 servers today in a best-in-class VMware environment, to perhaps 20,000 servers per admin in the future, when servers are fully instrumented with analytics and automated server management software,” said Liebl. “That will make storage management easier, less time consuming and more efficient.”

He added that storage lies at the heart of the self-driving data center because all this automation requires a record of various activities, which of course, generates data. Data will be generated in ever greater volumes by the rise of cloud computing, mobility, the Internet of Things (IoT), social media and analytics. That’s why overall data storage volumes will continue to double every two years.

“AI’s greatest demand on the storage industry is likely to be the increased demand for storage management capabilities that allow systems to handle the deluge,” said Liebl.

It could well be that the rise of AI and machine learning will influence the storage industry in much the same way that personal computers reshaped the business world. Just as PCs have advanced from personal productivity applications to large-scale enterprise databases and automation programs, AI and machine learning is likely to evolve from consumer-like functions to full-scale data driven programs that will drive global enterprises.

“Over the course of the next 20 years, companies will evolve to AI-assisted organizations,” said Michael Tso, CEO, Cloudian. “It will be a world in which data enables collaboration, with machines gathering information, learning and helping people to make decisions real-time to match customer needs.”

Examples of this already exist. The recommendation engines on shopping sites like Amazon already use this technology. Similarly, ad feed systems are getting good at serving up ads based on website visits. Cloudian, too, is involved in digital billboards that match advertising to individual drivers and their cars.

“For the storage industry, this means companies will have to retain massive volumes of unstructured data to ‘train’ machines,” said Tso. “Once machines can learn for themselves, they will collect and generate a new deluge of data to be stored, intelligently tagged and analyzed.”

Many of the experts interviewed by us made reference to self-driving vehicles. It should be noted that autonomous cars use a large number of sensors to “read” the environment, which is then compared to accurate map data. From there, decisions are made on how to steer, brake and accelerate. The storage complexity required is significant. Data from sensors such as cameras and radars come in at 10s of GB per second. All of it has to be compressed and processed. From there, the camera and radar-like view of where the car is on the road is compared to a High Definition (HD) map data. This is an essential part of deriving an accurate vehicle position. These HD maps are layered on top of standard map data that contain additional information such as lane markings, curbs and signs. All of this can 10s more GBs of additional storage. Multiply that by the amount of motion performed by one car and the amout of traffic on the road and the mind starts to boggle.

Additionally, each car has to record some of the driving data and keep it for days or months – depending on OEM and regulatory requirements. This is important because even if this data is uploaded to the cloud – a local copy will almost certainly have to be kept. The quantity of data involved – within each car and by the systems that keep the traffic running safely and efficiently – is just the beginning. All kinds of AI and machine learning systems will be accessing it to turn information into actionable intelligence. That means storage systems evolving that can store, move and process data at the desired velocity.

“AI could also lead to untapped hidden or unknown value in existing data that has no or little perceived value,” said Greg Schulz, an analyst at StorageIO Group.

Also see: DROBO 5D Review

Storage Enhancements

But it isn’t just a one-way street. It’s not only about how storage needs to be able to store more, process it faster, and feed it more rapidly to analytics engines. There is also the reciprocal impact – how AI and machine learning will return the favor and enhance storage technology.

“There is the scenario where AI and other algorithms enabling analytics can be used to help manage data, storage along with associated data infrastructure resources,” said Schulz. “This means moving beyond basic analytics and insight awareness reporting as well as traditional policy based system or software management.”

He said to watch for increased need of additional CPU processing requirements along with memory for AI and analytics, as well as tools that transform data into information.

Tuesday, January 23, 2018

The best vr cameras

Google Cardboard

Google wants to make virtual reality as accessible as possible, so enter Cardboard, a literal piece of cardboard that folds into a very portable VR headset. You can strap it to your head, you can hold it to your head – it doesn't really matter because all it cares about is giving you a quick, cheap and easy way to dip your toe in the VR waters.
Surprisingly, the VR is actually quite good. It's incredibly easy to share with people too, since they can just press it up against their heads if they want in on some tasty VR content. It's also compatible with most smartphones, including iPhones, making it a good choice for anyone who is looking to experience VR without too much of a cost.

Merge VR Goggles

The sneaky underdog of the mobile VR headset world, the Merge delivers everything you want from a mobile headset. It works with a wide variety of smartphones, including iPhone. It's made out of a soft foam, so it's both comfortable and light.
It's also got a bunch of doodads to help you customise your mobile experience. Adjust the lenses all you want, click two buttons to interact with your content; pop out the front window in case you ever need to use it for mixed/augmented reality purposes. Speaking of which, Merge now also sells the AR Merge cube, which lets you put mixed reality experiences in the palm of your hand.

HTC Vive Pro

Almost three years after the reveal of the first headset, HTC has revealed the HTC Vive Pro, which bumps up the visuals to a 3K resolution - 2880 x 1600 to be precise - built-in headphones, and a new nose flap to better keep out any leaking light.
Oh yeah, and it's now blue. But otherwise this is still the same headset, field of view included. Think of it less at Vive 2.0, but vive 1.5, and we expect it will appeal primarily to the VR enthusiasts. In our short time trying it out we really noticed the crisper resolution, while the inclusion of the headphones makes it feel more complete.

Pimax 8K

On Kickstarter now for $499, Pimax's new 8K VR headset is aimed at solving two VR problems: motion sickness and not-so-great field of views. It does this by going wide with a 200-degreee field of view, which is closer to the human field of view of 220 degrees. It also has two 3840 x 2160 displays.

Tuesday, November 14, 2017

What to look for when buying USB-C cables and adapters

USB standards have a long history, and they've gone through plenty of changes since first implemented in 1996. The premise behind it all is providing a way to standardize cables, connectors, communication, and power transfer between electronic devices. Some of the first equipment to use USB were the really old, brightly colored iMac and speakers. USB was designed to be the one standard that does it all, and that's pretty much how it all worked out.

The USB-C specification is one of those USB standards. Released in August 2014, it's a set of rules for a small 24-pin reversible plug connector to use with existing USB system. Some of the connections inside are used to tell which way a cable is plugged in; others are used to transfer data or power; and some are used as a dedicated connection to allow both sides to talk to each other, and make sure the right amount of electrical current is being sent to safely charge or power one device from the other. Though it was released in tandem with the USB 3.1 specification, USB Type-C rules are only for the physical connections — data speeds are covered by other rules. You can think of USB-C as a set of rules to make smarter USB plugs, cables, and connectors.

The best parts of the USB-C specification are also the parts that make buying the right cable or adapter important. With USB-C, all connected devices can send power out as well as receive power in. You can charge a phone or set of headphones or anything else that uses the USB-C spec with another phone that uses the USB-C specs. You could (in theory) build a cable that can pull power from several Lumia 950s or Nexus 6Ps and charge the battery in a MacBook if you wanted to.

AUKEY CABLE USB-C also includes a native way to "fast-charge" one USB-C certified device from another safely using that dedicated connection channel mentioned above. It's also an open specification that anyone can use and alter to better suit their needs, and companies making phones have done just that. This means buying the right cable is a must or you can risk damaging the things you're plugging in or even starting a fire.

But don't fret. You don't need to know all the rules in the USB-C spec or how it can tell which way it's plugged in or any of the other geeky details to make the right choice if you follow a few easy tips when you're buying a cable or connector. These three tips will help you get exactly what you need.

Thursday, September 21, 2017

Philadelphia works to bring solar energy costs down to earth

Anthony LoCicero, a 33-year-old structural engineer raised in South Jersey, has been flirting with the idea of installing solar panels on his three-bedroom brick townhouse in South Philadelphia since he bought it, seven years ago.

“Something about it just sounds like the right thing to do in general, right?” LoCicero said. “But it just never made financial sense.”

Although the price of solar panels has been dropping over the last five years, the cost of installing a solar system capable of producing most of the energy consumed by a Philadelphia row house still ranges between $10,000 to $30,000 — depending on the amount of energy consumed and the size of the house. But a city-wide solar program, with the goal of installing solar panels on 500 city rooftops by 2018, is currently offering below-market rates and other benefits, to entice homeowners.

“It was surprisingly inexpensive, I was pleasantly surprised,” LoCicero said after meeting with one of the three solar installers participating in Solarize Philly, a company called Solar by Kiss.

LoCicero and his fiancee, Christina George, currently use 5,662 kilowatt-hour (Kwh) per year. That’s a little bit below average for a Philadelphia rowhome, according to the installer, which typically would use between 7,000 and 8,000 Kwh. Their house has an electric stove, an electric dishwasher, and air conditioning. But their heating system is gas and their house is properly insulated, so it’s reasonably energy efficient. On average, their monthly electric bill is $70.

By installing 17 (300 Watts) solar panels on their roof, for a total cost of $18,615, they would produce 5528 Kwh a year, almost all the electricity they consume. Taking advantage of a federal tax credit, they could deduct 30 percent of that cost, which would save them $5,584.50, bringing down the total cost to $13,030.50.

“If we do the solar install, theoretically, our electric bill will drop to $1.66 a month,” LoCicero said.

If they finance that cost for 20 years through an equity or home repair line, LoCicero said they would need to make monthly payments of about $100. That’s about $30 more than their current average monthly electric bill.

“Which is not chump change but, at the end of the day, if we go out to lunch one less time a month — it’s not making or breaking our living situation,” LoCicero said.

LoCicero estimates it would take nine years to pay off the solar installation costs, at which point they would begin paying the projected average of $1.66 a month for electricity. Because they would still be Peco customers, they would need to pay an additional meter fee and taxes, which would range between $8 to $10 a month. Pennsylvania’s net metering program requires Peco to buy back extra electricity solar consumers don’t use at the retail rate, which is what non-solar ratepayers pay for electricity.

Weighing the costs and benefits of solar

LoCicero’s fiancee, Christina George, is not convinced it’s such a good deal. She said LoCicero is not looking at the big picture.

“My whole thing was… this may not be our forever home so does it makes sense to invest in this program if we are deciding that we’re going to move three years down the line?”

LoCicero counters by saying they would recoup their investment because it would raise the value of their house. But George said she’s also still paying her student loans — she’s an interior designer — and that this is not the best timing: they’re getting married on October 7th.

“It’s not on the top of my list of things to take on right now, and another expense — so needless to say I was not happy [with the idea of installing solar],” she said.

“So, I’ve been obviously the proponent of it in the family,” LoCicero said. “And I think I’m slowly turning Christina…. But we’ll see, we’re not sure yet.”

How Solarize Philly works to cut costs

LoCicero and George are among more than 1800 Philadelphia homeowners who have expressed interest in installing solar panels (for example: GOAL ZERO NOMAD 7 PLUS ) on their rooftops since the city launched Solarize Philly in July.

Philadelphia’s goal is to install solar energy on 500 houses by the end of 2018, which Philadelphia Energy Authority’s executive director Emily Schapira said would create 75 new green jobs. More than 500 homeowners are already working on a proposal with one of the three installers selected by PEA through an RFP — Solar States, Solar by Kiss, and Moore Energy — and Schapira said they are distributed all across the city.

“A few hot spots are the River Wards, South Philly, parts of West Philly are very active…. Also East Falls, the Northwest and parts of the Northeast,” Schapira said.

PEA also vetted the equipment for this program. For solar panels it selected the SolarWorld 300W Sunmodule Plus, the LG 335W Neon2 and the Jinko Solar 280W Eagle mono-crystalline PERC module, and SolarEdge inverters. Schapira said they offer long guarantees for the equipment and that her office reviews the installers’ proposals to make sure they’re citing the right production values.

And because they are buying in bulk and using economies of scale, PEA has been able to get better pricing across the industry. For example, Solar States charges $3.27 per watt of solar installed but within the Solarize Philly program that price drops down to $3.15.

“So you already save just by being part of Solarize Philly, not to mention the fact that the more people join, the deeper those discounts get,” Schapira said.

PEA negotiated discounts with installers using four tiers, depending on how many people sign up (0 to 15, 16 to 40, 41 to 100, over 100). Every tier comes with a $0.05 discount per watt of solar installed. With 55 contracts signed, the program is at Tier 3, meaning an average household with a 5kW system will save an additional $500.

But given that solar installation prices have been going down, some wonder whether it would be better to wait until the price drops even more.

The Looming International Trade Case

University of Pennsylvania’s Kleinman Center for Energy Policy solar expert Christina Simeone said waiting could be risky, because there’s a chance prices could actually go up.

“The immediate threat is the trade case,” Simeone said.

That’s a case brought to the International Trade Commission in August by bankrupt American solar manufacturers, including one of Solarize Philly providers SolarWorld. The U.S. manufacturers say they can’t compete with the cheap solar panels imported from China. So they’re begging the federal government to set tariffs to solar imports.

Simeone said the ITC has until September 22nd to decide, but ultimately the decision could go to president Donald Trump, who touts his support for American manufacturers. The Solar Energy Industry Association said “tariffs will double the cost of solar panels and will cause the U.S. to lose 88,000 jobs next year alone”disrupting the solar boom.

“So one could theorize that people would want to lock down the price of cheap solar as soon as possible given that there might be a threat that prices go up,” Simeone said.

Schapira said prices for Solarize Philly are fixed until the end of December 2017. Next year, PEA will launch a low and moderate income program, and although they have intentions of having a second market rate phase, she said “those plans are not finalized.”

“So there is some urgency to really moving forward, if you want to do it,” Schapira said.

Solar State’s Micah Gold-Markel agrees: “This is the moment to jump in,” he said. Gold-Markel argues that installations have seen a huge price reduction in the last eight years. He said they used to install solar for $6 per watt. His current price is $3.27 per watt.

“Is the technology going to get better and cheaper? Probably, but not hugely,” Gold-Markel said. “We’re not going to see some huge price drops. We are going to see some efficiency gain, but it’s not like computers, where they get twice as fast every year — the curve is much slower.”

And because the investment tax credit starts getting reduced in 2020, ending in 2022, Gold-Markel said the possible gains of better efficiency would be offset by the phasing out of those tax credits.

The Looming Wedding

Taking into account the urgency, LoCicero tries one last argument to convince George. He tells her that if they were doing this on their own they would have to figure out how to get the permits needed from the Department of Licenses and Inspections to install the rooftop panels, and from Peco to connect to the electric grid. But if they join the program, PEA cuts through the red tape for them.

“Considering that they’re doing all that for us,” LoCicero said, “that right there is a huge time saver, which to me time is more beneficial than money a lot of times, right?”

George is almost convinced. They start joking about having a “solar wedding.”

“They’ll [the solar contractors] be here that day,” LoCicero said.

“They better not be here,” George responded.

“I’ll be putting my tux on and stepping over electricians on my way out the door,” LoCicero joked back.

“Just don’t tell me, just don’t tell me about it,” George said.

Truth is, the panels will be installed within 90 days from the contract signature, according to Solar by Kiss. So no need to deal with contractors on their honeymoon.

Tuesday, July 11, 2017

Flashlight - Ten Random Facts

A flashlight (for example: SUNJACK LIGHTSTICK ) is a portable hand-held electric light. The source of the light is usually an incandescent light bulb or light-emitting diode (LED). A typical flashlight consists of a light bulb mounted in a reflector, a transparent cover (sometimes combined with a lens) to protect the light source and reflector, a battery, and a switch. These are supported and protected by a case.

The invention of the dry cell and miniature incandescent electric light bulbs made the first battery-powered flashlights possible around 1899. Today flashlights use mostly incandescent lamps or light-emitting diodes and run on disposable or rechargeable batteries. Some are powered by the user turning a crank or shaking the lamp, and some have solar panels to recharge a battery.

In addition to the general-purpose hand-held flashlight, many forms have been adapted for special uses. Head or helmet-mounted flashlights designed for miners and campers leave the hands free. Some flashlights can be used underwater or in flammable atmospheres. Flashlights are used as a light source when in a place with no power.
  • Flashlights  are portable light devices that are powered by electricity, which is created by mechanical, solar or battery sources.
  • ‘Flashlights’ are also known as ‘torches’, which is a reference to original flamed torches.
  • Modern flashlights generally contain one or more light emitting diodes (LEDs) although traditional incandescent lights are still used in some torches.
  • Flashlights have a reflector, light bulb, cover, switch and battery as well as a casing.
  • The term ‘flashlight’ comes from the early style torches, that did not project light consistently but rather were required to be flashed on and off due to the lack of power available from the battery, and the type of switched used.
  • The first flashlights were invented in the mid to late 1890s, by David Misell, an English inventor who started working for the American Electrical Novelty and Manufacturing Company, which later became the American Eveready Company, owned by Conrad Hubert, a Russian living in the US who also patented some of his own flashlight inventions.
  • The very first flashlights included a light, battery and reflector in a paper cylinder and after significant improvements in a twenty year period, the electric torch had become quite popular, due to their safety factor (compared to candles and kerosene lamps) and ease of use.
  • The flashlight principle has been used in headlamps, penlights and keyrings.
  • Flashlights are often made of plastic or aluminium, but materials have included steel, copper, silver, rubber, leather, wood and brass.
  • Beside household use, flashlights are used by campers and miners to see in the dark.

Thursday, May 4, 2017

Handmade Quilts and Pillows

You could get an entire large amount of options and choices in the event that you purchase your bedding online through the online bedding stores. You may get comfortable and quality of bedspreads, comforters, handmade quilts and pillows, a variety that is huge all age ranges in your household. Online bedding stores make it possible to attain the skillfully created search for your rooms, because the bed is a key element in a room, becoming the item that is biggest of furnishings truth be told there and occupying a more living area. Bedding hence becomes the main and element this is certainly easiest to work with when you need to change the appearance of the room.

Amish applique quilts

Bedding yourself or as being a Gift

No matter what fancy or pricey asleep are, in case it is covered with a plain sheet that is white its beauty is lost. An easy bed covered by having a gorgeous bedspread will add to the beauty of the room having said that. A young child, a baby or older people, a bedspread is perfect if you'd like a gift for any person. A young child leaving for college, a house-warming, a child bath or perhaps, in reality, any special occasion whatsoever, a bedspread will offer the purpose and also be described as an expression of love and consideration if you want something special for a wedding, birthday, graduation.

Bedding for infants

Babies need bedding, too. Baby bedding is specifically made such that it is soft and experiencing this is certainly nice. You may get an assortment this is certainly large of Comforters, Fleece Blankets, Quilts, Car Seat liners, Mattress Pads and Wool Baby Buntings, in order for an infant does not feel cool alone inside the crib, but could experience a sense of safety.


Quilts provide convenience and warmth. You will get patterns that are stunning colors in quilts from Amish online stores that provide Mennonite and Picture Quilts. These are handmade as well as a long lasting as really, so for decades as possible enjoy them. They truly are gorgeous pieces of art and work out for perfect gifting also. They could sooner or later also become heirlooms because they are handmade and of great quality.

From before 3400 BC quilts have been around. One of many earliest quilts had been located on the ivory this is certainly carved of the Pharaoh. Probably it started in China and Egypt around the time that is same was held to Europe by the Crusaders. Early quilts contain many layers of fabric which were stitched together to give you warmth into the Knights in cool and weather condition that is harsh and worn under their armors. Much later in the process, this is certainly quilting hold when mattresses and coverlets were stitched collectively to create a thick quilt; the procedure had been known as Cowlitz in medieval England. Quilts became essential toward the cold off of harsh winters.

The quilting procedure has come a long way from such modest origins. Italy's Trapunto, Japan's Yosemite, England's Cowlitz-Stuffed Sack and France's Appliqué, and also the Amish applique quilts all left their stamps being individual the quilt. Solid colors with feathered scroll designs and cable-stitch work had been the stamp of this Mennonites being Amish. The revival regarding the colonial styles in the mid-century this is certainly nineteenth together with "the Quilting B" the American woman's social occasion, saw lots of the quilting styles and styles we today even in modern times.

Monday, April 3, 2017

Roof Gardens: Green and Brown Roofs - The Differences and Benefits

Living roofs are soaring in popularity, both in residential and commercial projects, due not only to their aesthetics, but also the many environmental benefits they bring to the building. You will note if you visit horticultural events such as Chelsea or Hampton Court Flower Shows that many of the show gardens incorporate green roofs in some way, which is always a good indication of future trends. Here is a brief guide, explaining firstly what green roofs and brown roofs are, before detailing their uses and benefits.

Green Roofs

Green Roofs are basically roofs which incorporate planting, often sedum or wildflower and meadow planting, grasses and mosses. In fact, some can even be planted with trees and shrubs. The Roof Gardens in Kensington is a prime example of this. Installing a green roof creates a vegetated surface which provides colour and interest throughout the year. Often, living roofs are used in rural settings and in areas where the buildings need to blend into the background. Green roofs will either be planted or seeded.

There are of course many considerations before installing a green roof, primarily ensuring your roof is suitable, and ensuring it is completely watertight. It is always recommended to get a professional company carry out the work, as you could do more harm than good if not done properly.

Of course, living roofs/wildflower and meadow roofs create a dramatic visual impact, but they also have many other benefits.

Benefits of Green Roofs

1. Photosynthesis - the process of plants absorbing carbon dioxide and releasing oxygen. This is of particular benefit in urban areas.

2. Filter pollutants and dust from the surrounding area, again, a huge benefit in urban areas.

3. Green or living roofs act as an insulating layer on your roofing contractors NYC. You should therefore expect to spend less on your energy bills, thus reducing your carbon footprint.

4. Increase in biodiversity - encourage animals such as bees, butterflies and birds into the area. With the current bee crisis, any opportunity to encourage bees into the area is a huge benefit.

5. Living roofs can be fitted with bird boxes to encourage birds, often endangered species, into the area and give them a safe environment to nest.

6. Endangered plants can be introduced into the roof planting.

7. Green roofs can reduce stormwater runoff significantly, which can help alleviate flooding, another very topical issue.

8. Often used as social areas, perhaps on top of office buildings, allowing staff to have somewhere green to escape to in the middle of an urban area. They are also increasingly being installed in public areas, to provide much needed green space in built up areas. A good example of this is on London's Cannon Street Station.

Brown Roofs

Brown roofs are very similar to green roofs. The main difference is that whilst green roofs are often installed partly for the aesthetic value, brown roofs tend to be installed for environmental reasons, mainly, to encourage plants and wildlife.

Brown roofs are generally made using recycled materials and local soil. Whereas green roofs are often planted using very specific plants and following structured plans, brown roofs evolve more naturally. Whilst they are called brown roofs as this is the colour they are at the time of installation, they generally turn green over a period of time once the plants have started to establish themselves.

Brown roofs can incorporate water pools, wetland areas, rocks and boulders, basically any materials which will attract wildlife.

Benefits of Brown Roofs

1. Encourages wildlife into the area - brown roofs are specifically designed with this in mind. Particular plants may be introduced with the sole aim of encourages bees or butterflies. Wetland areas will encourage other types of insects and animals.

2. Brown roofs utilise soil and rubble which has been left behind after construction work. This ensures that wildlife which may have been displaced when construction work began, are encouraged back into the area.

3. As with green roofs, air quality is improved, which is particularly beneficial in inner city areas.

4. As brown roofs are made using recycled materials, they are the greener alternative.

5. Brown roofs generally have all the benefits of a green roof. They may take slightly longer to develop and flourish, but the environmental benefits will more than make up for that.